Introduction To Industrial Protocols

It is necessary to exercise control of the flow of data between two devices so what constitutes the message, and how the communication is to be initiated and terminated, is defined. This is termed the protocol.Thus one device needs to indicate to the other to start or stop sending data. This can be done by using handshaking wires connecting transmitting and receiving devices so that a signal along one such wire can tell the receiver that the transmitter is ready to send (RTS) and along another wire that the transmitter is ready to receive, a clear to send signal (CTS). RTS and CTS lines are provided for in RS232 serial communication links.
An alternative is to use additional characters on the transmitting wires. With the ENQ/ACK protocol, data packets are sent to a receiver with a query character ENQ. When this character is received the end of the data packet has been reached. Once the receiver has processed that data, it can indicate it is ready for another block of data by sending back an acknowledge (ACK) signal. Another form, the XON/XOFF, has the receiving device sending a XOFF signal to the sending device when it wishes the data flow to cease. The transmitter then waits for an XON signal before resuming transmission.
The most common Industrial protocols are MODBUS,CANBUS,PROFIBUS,I2C,HART etc…

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